Script

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Final FormMedial FormInitial FormIsolated FormLetter Name
ـاـاااأَلِف (‘alif)
ـبـبـبـبياء (bāʾ)
ـتـتـتـتتَاء (tāʾ)
ـثـثـثـثثَاء (thāʾ)
ـجـجـجـججِيم (jīm)
ـحـحـ حححَاء (ḥāʾ)
ـخـخـخـخخَاء (khāʾ)
ـدـددددال (dāl)
ذذذذذال (dhāl)
ـرـرررراء (rāʾ)
ـزـززززاء (‘zā)
ـسـسـسـسسِين (sīn)
شـشـشـ ششِين (shīn)
ـصـصـصـصصَاد (ṣād)
ضـضـضـضضَاد (ḍād)
ـطـطـطـططَاء (ṭāʾ)
ـظـظـظـظظاء (ẓāʾ)
ـعـعـعـععَيْن (ʿayn)
ـغـغـغـغغَين (ghayn)
ـفـفـفـففاء (fāʾ)
ـقـقـقـققاف (qāf)
ـكـكـكـككاف (kāf)
ـلـلـلـللام (lām)
ـمـمـمـمميم (mīm)
ـنـنـنـننون (nūn)
ـهـهـهـهٓـهَاء (hāʾ)
ـوـوووواو (wāw)
ـيـيـيـييَاء (yāʾ)

ِAlthough not counted as an alphabet, the hamzah plays an important role in Arabic grammar and script. These are the different forms it takes:





هَمزَة (hamzah)
ـأـأأأهَمزَة (ʾalif hamzah)
ـإـإإإهَمزَة (ʾalif hamzah)
ـؤـؤؤوَاو هَمْزة (wāw hamzah)
ـئـئـئيَاء هَمْزة (yāʾ hamzah)
ـآـآآآأَلِف مَدَّة (ʾalif maddah)

Harakat / Tashkeel (Diactritical Marks)

Indicates the short /a/ sound as in ‘up’.When placed before an alif <ا> it indicates the long /a:/ as in ‘farmer’ or ‘father’.ـَفَتحَة (fatḥah)
Indicates the short /i/ as in ‘Till’.When placed before a yā <ي> it indicates the long /i:/ as in ‘steel’.ـِكَسرَة (kasrah)
Indicates the short /u/ as in ‘put’.When placed before the wāw <و> it indicates the long /u:/ as in ‘mood’.ـُ
ضَمَّة (ḍammah)
Used on top of consonants that are not followed by a vowel.ـْـسُكُون (sukūn)
Indicates nunation: the -un, -in, and -an sounds.ـٌ  ـٍ ـً
تَنوين (tanwīn)
Indicates germination of doubling of consonants (tashdīd)ـّـ
شَدَّة (shaddah)
Indicates the long /a:/ as in ‘qur’ān.ـٓمَدّة (maddah)

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