The Arabic Alphabet

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To listen to a letter, click on the play button next to the letter name.

Final FormMedial FormInitial FormIsolated FormLetter Name
ـاـااا
أَلِف (‘alif)
ـبـبـبـب
باَء (bāʾ)
ـتـتـتـت
تَاء (tāʾ)
ـثـثـثـث
ثَاء (thāʾ)
ـجـجـجـج
جِيم (jīm)
ـحـحـ حح
حَاء (ḥāʾ)
ـخـخـخـخ
خَاء (khāʾ)
ـدـددد
دَال (dāl)
ذذذذ
ذَال (dhāl)
ـرـررر
رَاء (rāʾ)
ـزـززز
زَاء (‘zā)
ـسـسـسـس
سِين (sīn)
شـشـشـش
شِين (shīn)
ـصـصـصـص
صَاد (ṣād)
ضـضـضـض
ضَاد (ḍād)
ـطـطـطـط
طَاء (ṭāʾ)
ـظـظـظـظ
ظاء (ẓāʾ)
ـعـعـعـع
عَيْن (ʿayn)
ـغـغـغـغ
غَين (ghayn)
ـفـفـفـف
فَاء (fāʾ)
ـقـقـقـق
قاف (qāf)
ـكـكـكـك
كَاف (kāf)
ـلـلـلـل
لَام (lām)
ـمـمـمـم
مِيم (mīm)
ـنـنـنـن
نُون (nūn)
ـهـهـهـهٓـ
هَاء (hāʾ)
ـوـووو
وَاو (wāw)
ـيـيـيـي
يَاء (yāʾ)

Although not counted as an alphabet, the hamzah plays an important role in Arabic grammar and script. These are the different forms it takes:





هَمزَة (hamzah)
ـأـأأأهَمزَة (ʾalif hamzah)
ـإـإإإهَمزَة (ʾalif hamzah)
ـؤـؤؤوَاو هَمْزة (wāw hamzah)
ـئـئـئيَاء هَمْزة (yāʾ hamzah)
ـآـآآآأَلِف مَدَّة (ʾalif maddah)

Harakat / Tashkeel (Diacritical Marks)

Indicates the short /a/ sound as in ‘up’. When placed before an alif <ا> it indicates the long /a:/ as in ‘farmer’ or ‘father’.ـَفَتحَة (fatḥah)
Indicates the short /i/ as in ‘Till’. When placed before a yā <ي> it indicates the long /i:/ as in ‘steel’.ـِكَسرَة (kasrah)
Indicates the short /u/ as in ‘put’. When placed before the wāw <و> it indicates the long /u:/ as in ‘mood’.ـُ
ضَمَّة (ḍammah)
Used on top of consonants that are not followed by a vowel.ـْـسُكُون (sukūn)
Indicates nunation: the -un, -in, and -an sounds.ـٌ  ـٍ ـً
تَنوين (tanwīn)
Indicates germination of doubling of consonants (tashdīd)ـّـ
شَدَّة (shaddah)
Indicates the long /a:/ as in ‘qur’ān.ـٓمَدّة (maddah)

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Abdul Aleem

Founder, Arabic For Beginners

Abdul Aleem is currently pursuing a Masters degree in Fiqh from the Medina Islamic University Malaysia. He loves Arabic and wants to help others learn it.

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